🤷 Opinions Darryn Pollock

Think Crypto is a Bubble? What About Silicon Valley Startups Then?

Opinions
Many feel that the cryptocurrency and ICO model is a bubble, but they should look at Silicon Valley startups, in the same manner, more closely
Think Crypto is a Bubble? What About Silicon Valley Startups Then?

Many have come forward and said that the cryptocurrency ecosystem is a bubble, and a big part of that has to do with the way in which the ICO sector has operated, mimicking the Dot Com boom that was seen in the early 2000s.

However, those same commentators should probably look a little closer to home if they are looking for a bubble, especially one predicated on promises of equity and growth in user base.

ICOs and startups follow a very similar model in terms of capital raising. The biggest deviation, however, is the inclusivity of an ICO whereas startups look to major investors for their funds, and then turn their user base into the commodity.

This play from startups is much more open to collapse whereas the ICO model of individual and open investing allows individuals to become members, rather than a commodity, of the project.

The Silicon Tech Bubble is hitting its peak

Many think that the tech bubble popped in 2000, however, it has emerged as a slightly different beat. We are seeing instances of overvaluation creeping back into the space, especially when successful startups are being taken to IPO.

Venture Capital-funded companies, some reaching the status of unicorns, are dying all the time as they enter the market. These companies are severely overrated when they reach the billion dollar mark, as much as by 50 percent- according to research conducted by Will Gornall at the University of British Columbia and Ilya Strebulaev of Stanford.

Of those 135 unicorns examined, the researchers estimate that nearly half, or 65, should be more fairly valued at less than $1 bln.

This is already a huge indicator of a bubble brewing in Silicon Valley. Keith Wright, instructor of accounting and information services at the Villanova School of Business, explains the way in which this overvaluation occurs.

“Investors focus on growing the unicorn customer base, not turning a profit. New regulatory conditions, including wildly separate share classes, which give some shareholders significantly more rights than others, have resulted in a danger of widespread overvaluation,” Wright said in an interview to CNBC:

“Some shareholders have voting rights to assets, rights to dividends, rights to inspect records.”

ICOs and their similar model

People will argue that at its core, ICOs are often overvalued as well, but while there is a similar model between startups and ICOs trying to raise capital for the company, there is also one major difference.

Startups will go to venture capitalists and other sources of major resources in order to gain capital, and in exchange, as Wright states, these shareholders get huge rights. However, the situation with an ICO is that there is no barrier to entry for individuals to ‘invest’ in the company- it is accessible to everyone.

Essentially what this allows is any person who invests in an ICO becomes a member of the company and thus has big and powerful rights over the way in which the company functions.

If, for example, a Blockchain project attempted to raise funds through an ICO by saying they will have complete control of their users and user data once the product launches, it would be considered ridiculous and the project would fail without even starting.

However, with startups, only the wealthy investors have members rights, and those who utilize the project become the commodity with their data and information.

A change in scene

Venture capitalists are starting to become dinosaurs, and the entire startup space is being reworked with the advent of Blockchain and ICOs. But it is not only the startups that are looking at new disruptive technologies.

“Large incumbent companies are learning how to adopt emerging and disruptive technologies faster than ever. Companies such as Actesy.com from St. Gallen have recently perfected and piloted new software that enables Fortune 500 companies such as Porsche, Roche and BASF to quickly and easily adopt emerging technologies while maintaining their existing highly expensive, entrenched legacy solutions,” Wright adds.

“Previously, it may have taken 10 or more years to replace enterprise-wide global systems. When large companies learn to sustain their competitive advantage through disruptive technologies, the unicorn game is limited.”

Trust is the ultimate catalyst for any community. There are projects like U°Community that build a transparent community platform with dynamic reputation. Users could create content, interact with people, direct their own communities, run businesses, and even build dApps without having to leave the ecosystem.

The shift at the top is happening as the incumbent companies look further afield than those big, and overvalued, unicorns in Silicon Valley. And at the grassroots level, individual investors, such as those being seen in ICOs are starting to become as big and as important as your traditional heavy investor.

The exclusivity of backing a project no longer fits the mark, rather the crowdfunding, ICO model is what is working in today’s world, and as such Silicon Valley startups that are still pursuing becoming unicorns and gaining too much funding to become overvalued, are blowing up that tech bubble all over again.

A personal touch

The real crux of the matter between a startup using Venture Capitalist money and that of an ICO using funding from individuals who back the project is the support. Major companies fund projects hoping to mold and control them for their own gains, and they have little to no worry about the company and its users needs or wants.

At the same time, when it comes to an ICO, the people investing in it, have a vested interest in the success of the project, they are supporting it and wanting it to succeed.

When it comes to defining a bubble, overvaluing a project just to pick up users and without looking at the potential and growth of the company, it becomes quite apparent which is more of a bubble.

🤷 Opinions
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Eduard Ezhov

The 10 Best Crypto Channels and Groups on Telegram

Nowadays almost every crypto-related mass media run its Telegram channel on the platform. Here are 10 of the best Telegram crypto channels and groups
The 10 Best Crypto Channels and Groups on Telegram

Telegram is one of the safest ways of messaging in 2018. It supports end-to-end encryption, which ensures that third parties have no chance of getting access to users’ messages. Today the platform has over 200 million users, and over 15 billion messages delivered daily.

Probably, encryption and safety are the reasons why the majority of the people involved in cryptocurrency use Telegram for personal and business purposes. There are tons of Telegram-based exchanging bots, built-in wallets and other instruments for managing digital coins. So, it is no wonder that almost every crypto-related mass media has its channel on Telegram. Here are 10 of the most remarkable and readable Telegram groups and channels related to cryptocurrency.

(These channels obviously have different styles, audiences, and types of content. Some of them are totally incomparable, so I cannot just put them in a list from good ones to the best ones. In order to avoid comparing incomparable things, the channels are separated depending on their topics.)

U.Today

U.Today has a special place in this top. First, you will certainly like it, if you are reading this website. Besides, the channel can hardly be attributed to any of the topics below. It is not oriented to trading or some special technical researches. The style of articles here is quite popular, so it will be interesting for a wide audience.
Unlike most of news channels, U.Today makes diversified publications for Telegram. The content is related to the website, but it is still independent. You can get the most remarkable news and statistics from Telegram, and then go to the website for full information. It is important to note, because other channels often just post links in Telegram, without any special content.

Trading channels

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This type of groups and channels should be considered an instrument for crypto traders. Here you can find some special information about tendencies in the market, statistics and trading tools. This content is not really intended for a wide audience, but it is quite helpful for trading.

Crypto Charters

This channel is one of the most readable for traders. Authors create content in an easy-to-understand form and often with a bit of humor. That is why it is a good option if you are slightly familiar with trading and want to understand it more deeply. However, it requires knowing the basics of exchanging technologies to understand some publications correctly.

A major part of publications in this channel is related to Bitcoin. Authors often talk about BTC course and perspectives, which makes the channel even more helpful for Bitcoin-traders.

Cache Charts

Cache Charts is a less technical channel. Authors are experienced traders. They often provide easy explanations of the tendencies in the market and share some useful trading tools. The content is easy to perceive and it does not require knowing special technical terms. In addition, here you can find some useful advice on how to trade if you are not skilled enough to analyze the market by yourself.

What makes the channel less attractive is that it is not free now. The price of joining is 0.01 BTC per month. I am not saying whether it is worth it or not, but you can research the archive of the channel if you are thinking about it.

UK Crypto Premium

This channel is devoted to the technical analysis of the market and distinct coins. Here you can find a lot of useful information that helps to create an actual market strategy and optimize your crypto portfolio. Authors always keep track of the latest news and provide some interesting data for traders. In addition, sometimes news and crypto-related articles diversify the content.

UK Crypto Premium’s content is not really difficult to understand. It will be helpful even for beginners. Although some terms may be unfamiliar, the style of the content is quite popular and easy to comprehend.

News channels

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Here I decided to recommend some crypto channels that are not focused on a particular coin or crypto-exchange. Whatever you are interested in, it is important to know about big events, updates and releases. Here are some popular channels that create news publications about the most important things in the crypto community.

CoinDesk

CoinDesk is probably the most popular crypto-media for English speakers. It is a well-known website where almost all types of crypto-related content are published, including:

  • News

  • Guides

  • Researches

  • Statistics

  • Technical reviews

  • Informational articles etc.

They have a Telegram channel, and it is mostly focused on news. CoinDesk has to be on this list because it is one of the well-trusted media, where you can find actual news and research.

It is important to note that the admins do not publish original content in the CoinDesk Telegram channel. They just take articles and news from the site. However, the instant view feature in Telegram allows users to conveniently read the articles in the app.

Cointelegraph

Cointelegraph is another popular crypto-news media. They have a more developed channel with 93k subscribers on Telegram, but the style of publications is the same as that of CoinDesk – it is just articles from the web site. They create about 10-15 posts on Telegram per day. One additional feature of Cointelegraph is that it has a Telegram channel for Spanish speakers.

As for topics, the majority of publications is about the latest events in the crypto-industry. Sometimes the admins publish analytical research, so you can get independent, statistical information about the state of the market. In addition, they have a YouTube channel with well-made animation videos about blockchain technologies. This will help you understand the main concepts of blockchain if you are beginner in crypto-industry.

News Bitcoin.com

I suppose the name of the channel can say a lot about its topic and type of the content. It is one of the best channels for those who are actively interested in bitcoin, including traders, holders and others. Actually, even if you prefer altcoins, you cannot refuse that bitcoin has a great infliction on the industry, so sometimes it is interesting to read about how it is developed.

The channel has 70,000 subscribers, and works the same way as CoinDesk and Cointelegraph. Users can read some news and research on Telegram, and guides, statistics, and informational articles are available on the website. What makes the site different is that it was founded by Roger Ver, one of the people who was developing Bitcoin in the first years of its existing. Actually, the domain bitcoin.com speaks for itself.

Bots

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Bots are a very special type of Telegram’s initial structure. They function as a built-in application that can serve a lot of purposes. Commonly, the algorithm of working with a bot is very simple: the user sends a command and gets a reply. Some bots use menus to work faster and improve the overall user experience.

I am not talking about bots for trading, sending and keeping cryptocurrency. You should be very careful using them because they are often a scam. The bots listed below are just a convenient and fast way to get much-needed information and data from different websites.

BitcoinPriceAnalyticsBot

This is an indispensable tool for Bitcoin-traders and holders. The bot does simple work: it is always monitoring Bitcoin’s actual price for you. We know that BTC’s course is quite volatile and unpredictable. It may go down or up 3-5% in one day. If you do not want to check it every hour, BitcoinPriceAnalyticsBot will be very helpful. It allows users to set upper and lower BTC prices, and when the course hits any of these points, the bot will send a notification. It is a good instrument to help you remain calm about Bitcoin’s price course without checking it too often.

CoinMarketCap

CoinMarketCap is a website where you can find statistical information about almost all cryptocurrencies. Here you will find available not only the current price, but also a history of developing of a course, capitalization and trading volume for every coin. The site also contains a lot of information about exchanges, total market capitalization, the biggest events and so on.

The bot functionality is not so wide. Actually, this is not an official bot, but rather it is just made with the API that CoinMarketCap provides to developers. The bot has the following features:

  • Monitoring the prices of the top 10 cryptocurrencies

  • Sending notifications about changes in the price

  • Monitoring the total capitalization of the market

  • Viewing a history of the price of chosen coin for the last 7 days

API is a developer’s special tool that allows third parties to take some data from the website. So, the information provided by the bot is the same that you can find in CoinMarketCap.

ICO

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It is not a secret that the first investors of any blockchain project sometimes get incredible revenue. Nevertheless, it is a great risk, because no one can say for sure if the project will be successful. Here are some channels for those who like to try their luck investing in ICOs.

ICO Drops

Probably the most well trusted ICO channel. It has about 40k subscribers. Admins publish news about the most remarkable ICOs and Airdrops almost every day. Actually, ICO Drops is a popular website where you can find tons of information and statistics about new blockchain projects. However, if you do not have time to research the site, the telegram channel is a good option.

ICO Countdown

Another popular group devoted to upcoming ICOs. It is a chat where users can discuss some interesting projects. This might be very informative because you can share your opinion with other investors and help someone make the right decision (or maybe someone will help you with that).

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Wikicoin Katya Michaels

Why is Bitcoin Worth so Much?

📚 Wikicoin
Everyone is watching the price of Bitcoin, but how much is it really worth and why?
Why is Bitcoin Worth so Much?

 

As investors and traders breathlessly watch the price of Bitcoin, fortunes being made and lost on the extreme volatility of the cryptocurrency market, one might wonder why this virtual representation of value is worth so much.

While none of the modern fiat currencies are backed by gold any longer, they rely on the “full faith and credit” of governments. Whether that means anything at all is a divisive matter of opinion. Bitcoin, of course, is not backed by a government or any centralized institution, and has no physical manifestation.

With this in mind, it can be difficult not to succumb to the “Bitcoin bubble” scaremongering. However, any investment opportunity demands thorough and impartial research, so let’s take a look at some of the factors that make up the perceived value of Bitcoin.

The value of Bitcoin, and the Blockchain that underlies its use, is bolstered by something that can’t be measured.

Bitcoin payments: the popular attraction

The first thing most people think about in relation to Bitcoin is its utility as a digital currency for private, instant and global transactions. What makes them different from fiat transactions?

  • Bitcoin can serve as an alternative to heavily monitored payment systems, like credit cards and wire transfers. For those who value preservation of privacy, this holds a great deal of value.

  • The divisibility of Bitcoin and the absence of third parties in the verification process makes it a promising medium for micropayments, when a good solution for scalability is found. Reliable, scalable micropayments will revolutionize online commerce and advertisement.

Bitcoin as store of value: a deeper insight

Despite the enticing prospects of Bitcoin payments, paying for one’s lunch is probably not the most optimal use of the currency, at least not yet. For many everyday consumers and experienced investors alike, Bitcoin serves as a store of immutable value - a kind of digital gold. How so?

  • While central banks can print more fiat currency when they choose, the amount of Bitcoin is mathematically limited to 21 million. This scarcity, even more stringent than the scarcity of a natural resource, means that Bitcoin will not be devalued.

  • Today, many people in the world are living under conditions of political and financial uncertainty, fearful of their assets being seized, frozen, or dissolved after a government collapse. For them, Bitcoin can be an investment that transcends borders, dictatorships and bureaucratic barriers to entry.

Bitcoin Blockchain: the fundamental innovation

At the core of Bitcoin’s functionality lies the cryptographic innovation which is the real technological and financial game changer - the Blockchain. Essentially, Bitcoin currency was just the first application built on the Blockchain, but the possibilities of this technology are wide-ranging.

  • Blockchain is a programmable, natively digital technology that enables the simple and immediate execution of tasks that would be convoluted and complex in traditional frameworks. This convenience will drive the mass adoption of Blockchain, even if people will not be explicitly aware of using it - much in the way we are not always aware of using the TCP/IP protocol now.

  • Blockchain is already being used to build industry-disrupting applications, with the scope of Blockchain implementation growing continuously. For many investors, the overall future worth of these applications, which is difficult to even imagine, is what gives Bitcoin value today.

The price of liberty

Finally, sentimental as it may seem, the value of Bitcoin, and the Blockchain that underlies its use, is bolstered by something that can’t be measured - the promise of financial independence, freedom from regulation and right to privacy.

Crucially, with Bitcoin, the “eternal vigilance” that ensures liberty is decentralized, distributed and implemented through automatic mathematical operations, eliminating reliance on faulty humans and potentially corrupt institutions.

It’s true that many Bitcoin functions that make it an attractive investment are now provided, often with improved usability, by various altcoins. The cryptocurrency market is diversifying, but Bitcoin remains its dominating asset, both financially and psychologically, and most altcoins’ valuations are correlated with Bitcoin.

In the end, Bitcoin has value because its users and investors believe it has value. But today, that is the case with fiat currencies as well, so it’s up to each individual consumer and investor to decide - which currency’s faith and credit is more worthy.

Wikicoin
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Sylvia Greenfield

US Cryptocurrency Tax Guide 2018: Unchained’s Laura Shin’s Tips

Between you and the IRS: Tax rules US-based cryptocurrency users should know
US Cryptocurrency Tax Guide 2018: Unchained’s Laura Shin’s Tips

Tax reporting season is coming up in the US, and we would like to share the highlights from a January episode of podcast Unchained, in which host Laura Shin had a conversation with tax attorney Tyson Cross and CPA Jason Tyra about tax rules crypto owners in the US should pay attention to. You can check out the original podcast here.

1. Every single sell of virtual currency is a taxable event

That includes not only cashing out cryptocurrency for fiat but also buying a cup of coffee, exchange one type of virtual currency for another.

Under IRS rules, cryptocurrencies are categorized as properties. When they are sold, the seller is subject to capital tax gains. When they are sold at a loss, the seller can claim losses.

2. Taxpayers are responsible for keeping track of crypto transactions

Taxpayers are advised to keep a spreadsheet of their own to record the date of a transaction, the buying price, the currency. Transaction fees are treated as deductions.

In terms of matching buys and sales or determining the cost basis, the IRS hasn’t issued guidelines, so the taxpayer can do either first in first out, last in first out, or cherry-pick.

However, cherry-picking will be very time consuming and may result in mistakes, Cross and Tyra warned. Both experts used first in first out with their clients, while also acknowledging that the practice doesn’t result in the least taxes in a rising rate environment.

Some exchanges keep records for their users, but they cannot keep track of the buying price of the assets if the user transferred the currencies from another exchange or from their wallet, and sometimes the way exchanges characterize transactions can be misleading.

The cost basis may not be right when users transfer crypto from other sources. Non-US exchanges may have different terminology. Decentralized exchanges may not keep records for users at all.

Since every sell is a taxable event, trading cryptos just for fun is probably not a good idea.

https://bitcoin.tax/ and https://cointracking.info/ are two popular tools for the purpose of reporting taxes on crypto. Cross hasn’t used them, and Tyra said his clients use them and they worked well.

When a taxpayer acquires cryptocurrencies through hard fork, the experts recommended the cost basis to start at zero. Better IRS guidance on the matter is needed, Cross said.

3.  Claiming transactions to like-kind exchanges may delay paying taxes, but the IRS can challenge that.

IRS section 1031 rules that taxpayer can postpone paying tax on the gain if he/she reinvests the proceeds in similar property as part of a qualifying like-kind exchange. Since cryptocurrency is a new asset class, the IRS has no rules on determining like-kind exchanges on crypto.

That means that the IRS may challenge the claim, and the taxpayer will either have to pay up or face a potential lawsuit. The new tax code’s like-kind exchange only applies to real estate, but the taxpayer can consider the option if their crypto was sold before the rule changed.

Even if the taxpayer doesn’t have to be taxed for it, in the end, one still needs to report it at form 8824.

4. Selling at a loss and then buying back can be a way to avoid tax...until it can’t be.

Such a practice is called wash sales in security terms, and the IRS has a rule against wash sales- the IRS cannot recognize a loss on an investment if that investment was purchased within 30 days of sale (before or after sale).

For now, this rule doesn’t apply to cryptocurrencies because they are not securities, but taxpayers need to beware of economic substance doctrine, which means that any trade having no substance other than tax benefits is deemed invalid.

5. If you are a Coinbase user

IRS has requested all transactions records for customers who have transacted in amounts larger than $14,000. If you fit this criterion, you should consult with a tax advisor to determine whether you are at risk of civil and criminal penalties due to unreported income, wrote Cross in an email to Unchained.

For a more detailed explanation on tax policy as well as insights on various scenarios like payroll and mining, please refer to the original podcast.

Disclaimer: this article is only a general guidance based on research. It’s not legal or accounting advice. Please refer to a lawyer or accountant for guidance to your specific needs. 

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David Dinkins

Fifteen Year Old Hacks Ledger Hardware Wallet, CEO Dismisses Exploit as “FUD”

The Ledger series of hardware wallets has fixed a serious vulnerability, but Ledger CEO says the exploit, which would have allowed attacker to steal funds, wasn’t serious.
Fifteen Year Old Hacks Ledger Hardware Wallet, CEO Dismisses Exploit as “FUD”

The Ledger series of cryptocurrency hardware wallets, purported by their maker to be “tamper-proof” has been hacked by a 15-year old, according to Ars Technica. Ledger has long advertised that its firmware’s cryptographic signature cannot be forged, and that the device would immediately notify the user if any malicious code had been placed on it. In fact, the company is so certain that its firmware can’t be hacked or forged that Ledger has told users even devices purchased on eBay would be safe to use.

According to Ledger:

"There is absolutely no way that an attacker could replace the firmware and make it pass attestation without knowing the Ledger private key.”

Whoops

Fifteen year old Saleem Rashid set out to prove Ledger wrong. Rashid wrote on his blog:

“An attacker can exploit this vulnerability to compromise the device before the user receives it, or to steal private keys from the device physically or, in some scenarios, remotely.”

He then proceeds to describe the process by which he could install a backdoor without the device ever realizing (or notifying the end-user) that it was compromised. This backdoor would cause the wallet to create a predetermined seed, allowing a hacker to drain the device’s wallets remotely at any time. An attacker could buy these supposedly unhackable devices from Ledger, install the malicious code, and resell them to end-users without the user ever realizing the device had been tampered with, according to Rashid.

Unsatisfactory response

Rashid notified Ledger of the vulnerability, and the company has since provided a fix. But Rashid wasn’t satisfied. On his blog he notes that he did not elect to receive a bug bounty from the company because:

“Before I get to the details of the vulnerability, I would like to make it clear that I have not been paid a bounty by Ledger because their responsible disclosure agreement would have prevented me from publishing this technical report. I chose to publish this report in lieu of receiving a bounty from Ledger, mainly because Eric Larchevêque, Ledger’s CEO, made some comments on Reddit which were fraught with technical inaccuracy. As a result of this I became concerned that this vulnerability would not be properly explained to customers.”

The CEO of Ledger addressed the exploit on Reddit, dismissing the vulnerability as “non-critical” and “massive FUD.” He called Rashid’s disclosure of the criticality of the exploit a “publicity stunt”:

“This is a massive FUD, and such thread should be removed. I won't remove it however because it would create the opposite effect. The security researcher in question is greatly exaggerating the criticity of the issue he found. I can't unfortunately go in the details because good practice require to patch (and wait for enough updates) before sharing more information. I don't understand his publicity stunt.”

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Darryn Pollock

North Korean Mining Exploits Just One Way For Countries to Profit and Grow

North Korea has reportedly been tapping into the power of cryptocurrency mining to help boost its self, but that’s not the only way crypto is coming to the rescue
North Korean Mining Exploits Just One Way For Countries to Profit and Grow

While it was probably the worst kept secret, it has emerged through a South Korean report that its neighbor from the North has been mining cryptocurrency. It is also unsurprising as the decentralized and amoral nature of cryptocurrency means that it is available to all to use how they please.

It has also seen the likes of Iran and Venezuela develop their own cryptocurrencies in order to bypass sanctions installed on them by world leaders, the US. Some will be very skeptical and against the likes of these so-called rogue nations getting a foot up by cryptocurrencies, but it is true libertarianism in action.

The global make up has been built and fashioned around a strong Western Core with the likes of NATO and the UN dictating the way in which things should be done, however, cryptocurrencies do not adhere to the societal norms and cannot be controlled or used for one agenda or the next.

It opens up a huge philosophical debate, but before right and wrong can be answered for, it must also be remembered that these cryptocurrencies are also helping the poor and downtrodden when their so-called sovereign governments have let them down, such as in Zimbabwe and again in Venezuela.

Mining more money

The emerging crypto ecosystem that is sweeping globally, while remaining anonymous has created a perfect market for a country like North Korea to create money out of nothing more than electricity.

The cryptocurrency mining space has evolved from individuals with GPUs to major mining pools and companies, such as Bitmain. But, North Korea has proven that on a state level, there is an opportunity for governments to also profit- especially seeing as they run the electricity.

This creation of cryptocurrencies means that the North Koreans have an asset that is in demand that they can sell while remaining anonymous. This leaves any sort of sanctions or halts on the markets out in the cold and allows the country to be semi-self-sufficient.

The uses of its earnings may be up for debate, and the morality questioned. But much like Bitcoin cannot be blamed for drug buying, neither can it be blamed for aiding North Korea to accumulate wealth.

Breaking the western hegemony

It has also been reported and discussed how Iran and Venezuela are using their own cryptocurrencies to bypass sanctions implemented by the US. Again, there may be questions of morality and righteousness in this, but those same questions can be posed of the US and their rights to cripple access to the global economy.

There has been long political debates and philosophizing about the way in which the global system has been constructed by the West and how it hampers the growth of other nations that do not follow those norms. Cryptocurrencies at least give a tool that governments can use, that are uncontrollable, to help prop themselves up.

A chance for good

Again, the moral debate could rage forever, but what can not be debated is the other side of things cryptocurrencies can open up in dire situations. Cryptocurrencies always had the moniker of being a tool of the people, and in places where the people have been let down by traditional economies and policies, a burgeoning cryptocurrency market usually springs up.

In Zimbabwe, people have been forced to adopt the US Dollar as their currency has degraded to nothing, but even getting hold of the US Dollar is difficult and puts the country in the pocket of the West again.

However, the African nation, with the help of coins like Dash, are building a functioning digital economy which is helping the people to survive.

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